Advection of Karenia brevis blooms from the Florida Panhandle towards Mississippi coastal waters. I. M. Soto, M. K. Cambazoglu, A. D. Boyette, K. Broussard, D. Sheehan, S. D. Howden, A. M. Shiller, B. Dzwonkowski, L. Hode, P. J. Fitzpatrick, R. A. Arnone, P. F. Mickle, K. Cressman
Light rare earth element depletion during Deepwater Horizon blowout methanotrophy. A. M. Shiller, E. W. Chan, D. J. Joung, M. C. Redmond & J. D. Kessler
Influence of estuarine-exchange on the coupled bio-physical water column structure during the fall season on the Alabama shelf, Continental Shelf Research. Dzwonkowski, B., A. Greer, C. Briseno-Aveno, J. Krause, I. Soto Ramos, F. Hernandez, A. Deary, J. Wiggert, D. Joung, P. Fizpatrick, S. O’Brien, S. Dykstra, Y. Lau, M. Cambazoglu, G. Lockridge, S. Howden, A. Shiller, and W.M. Graham (2017)
Diurnal changes in ocean color sensed in satellite imagery. Arnone R, Vandermuelen R, Soto I, Ladner S, Ondrusek M, Yang H (2017)
Data processing for a small-scale long-term coastal ocean observing system near Mobile Bay, Alabama. Tzeng, M. W., Dzwonkowski, B., & Park, K. (2016)
Surface Biomass Flux across the Coastal Mississippi Shelf. Arnone, R., R. Vandermeulen, P. Donaghay, H. Yang. (2016)
Development of a Low-Cost Arduino-Based Sonde for Coastal Applications. Lockridge, G., Dzwonkowski, B., Nelson, R., & Powers, S. (2016)
Initial evaluations of a Gulf of Mexico/Caribbean ocean forecast system in the context of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Zaron, E. D., Fitzpatrick, P. J., Cross, S. L., Harding, J. M., Bub, F. L., Wiggert, J. D., et al. (2015)
The coupled estuarine-shelf response of a river-dominated system during the transition from low to high discharge. Dzwonkowski, B., Park, K., & Collini, R. (2015)
See what we have coming up:
I.M. Soto, M. K. Cambazoglu, A. D. Boyette, K. Broussard, D. Sheehan, S. D. Howden, A. M. Shiller, B. Dzwonkowski, L. Hode, P. J. Fitzpatrick, R. A. Arnone, P. F. Mickle, K. Cressman, Advection of Karenia brevis blooms from the Florida Panhandle towards Mississippi coastal waters, Harmful Algae, Volume 72, 2018, Pages 46-64
Abstract: Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis have been documented along coastal waters of every state bordering the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Some Gulf Coast locations, such as Florida and Texas, suffer from recurrent intense and spatially large blooms, while others such as Mississippi seem to rarely observe them. The main objective of this work is to understand the dynamics that led to the K. brevis bloom in Mississippi coastal waters in fall 2015. Blooms of K. brevis from the Florida Panhandle region are often advected westward towards the Mississippi-Alabama coast; however there is interannual variability in their presence and intensity in Mississippi coastal waters. The 2015 K. brevis bloom was compared to the 2007 Florida Panhandle K. brevis bloom, which showed a westward advection pattern, but did not intensify along the Mississippi coast. Cell counts and flow cytometry were obtained from the Mississippi Department of Marine Resources, Alabama Department of Public Health, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission and The University of Southern Mississippi. Ocean color satellite imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer onboard the Aqua satellite was used to detect and delineate the blooms in 2007 and 2015. Two different regional applications of NCOM-Navy Coastal Ocean Model (1-km resolution NCOM-GoM/Gulf of Mexico and 6-km resolution NCOM-IASNFS/Intra Americas Sea Nowcast Forecast System) were used to understand the circulation and transport pathways. A Lagrangian particle tracking software was used to track the passive movement of particles released at different locations for both bloom events. Ancillary data (e.g., nutrients, wind, salinity, river discharge) from local buoys, monitoring stations and coincident oceanographic cruises were also included in the analysis. The blooms of K. brevis reached the Mississippi coast both years; however, the bloom in 2007 lasted only a few days and there is no evidence that it entered the Mississippi Sound. Two major differences were observed between both years. First, circulation patterns in 2015 resulting from an intense westward-northwestward that persisted until December allowed for continuous advection, whereas this pattern was not evident in 2007. Second, local river discharge was elevated throughout late fall 2015 while 2007 was below the average. Thus, elevated discharge may have provided sufficient nutrients for bloom intensification. These results illustrate the complex, but important interactions in coastal zones. Further, they emphasize the importance in establishing comprehensive HAB monitoring programs, which facilitate our understanding of nutrient and phytoplankton dynamics, and stress the importance for multi-agency cooperation across state boundaries. Continue Reading –>
Shiller AM, Chan EW, Joung DJ, Redmond MC, Kessler JD (2017) Light rare earth element depletion during Deepwater Horizon blowout methanotrophy. 7(1), 10389.
Abstract: Rare earth elements have generally not been thought to have a biological role. However, recent work has demonstrated that the light REEs (LREEs: La, Ce, Pr, and Nd) are essential for at least some methanotrophs, being co-factors in the XoxF type of methanol dehydrogenase (MDH). We show here that dissolved LREEs were significantly removed in a submerged plume of methane-rich water during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) well blowout. Furthermore, incubation experiments conducted with naturally methane-enriched waters from hydrocarbon seeps in the vicinity of the DWH wellhead also showed LREE removal concurrent with methane consumption. Metagenomic sequencing of incubation samples revealed that LREE-containing MDHs were present. Our field and laboratory observations provide further insight into the biochemical pathways of methanotrophy during the DWH blowout. Additionally, our results are the first observations of direct biological alteration of REE distributions in oceanic systems. In view of the ubiquity of LREE-containing MDHs in oceanic systems, our results suggest that biological uptake of LREEs is an overlooked aspect of the oceanic geochemistry of this group of elements previously thought to be biologically inactive and an unresolved factor in the flux of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, from the ocean. Continue Reading –>
May 17, 2017
Dzwonkowski, B., A. Greer, C. Briseno-Aveno, J. Krause, I. Soto Ramos, F. Hernandez, A. Deary, J. Wiggert, D. Joung, P. Fizpatrick, S. O’Brien, S. Dykstra, Y. Lau, M. Cambazoglu, G. Lockridge, S. Howden, A. Shiller, and W.M. Graham (2017) Influence of estuarine-exchange on the coupled bio-physical water column structure during the fall season on the Alabama shelf, Continental Shelf Research. 140(15), 96-109.
Abstract: Estuarine-shelf exchange can drive strong gradients in physical and biogeochemical properties in the coastal zone and exert a significant influence on biological processes and patterns. Physical, biogeochemical, and plankton data from an across-shelf transect extending south of Mobile Bay, Alabama, in conjunction with regional time series data, were used to determine the relative importance of estuarine-shelf interactions on the physical-biological structuring of the shelf environment during fall conditions (i.e., well-mixed, low discharge). This period was also characterized by a relatively unique weather event associated with the remnants of Hurricane Patricia, which drove a meteorological flushing of estuarine water onto the shelf. Survey data indicated generally low N:P ratios across the shelf, with slightly elevated dissolved inorganic nitrogen in the Region of Freshwater Influence (ROFI) that extended approximately 30 km offshore. The ROFI had higher values of chlorophyll-a, diatom-specific production, marine snow, and primary productivity, with notable contributions from the larger size cells (>5 µm). Furthermore, stratification provided a niche opportunity for Trichodesmium sp. aggregates, a typically oligotrophic cyanobacteria, at the offshore edge of the ROFI. The lens of estuarine water may have limited the vertical extent to which this population was mixed, providing enhanced light availability relative to the well-mixed offshore conditions. Following the biogeochemical trend, the highest zooplankton abundances were also located within the estuarine outflow. While limited in spatial extent, the distinct geochemical and biological characteristics within the ROFI demonstrate the ecological impacts that estuarine-sourced waters can have during periods of generally low productivity in the Mississippi Bight. Continue reading –>
April 11, 2017
Arnone R, Vandermuelen R, Soto I, Ladner S, Ondrusek M, Yang H; Diurnal changes in ocean color sensed in satellite imagery. J. Appl. Remote Sens. 0001;11(3):032406. doi:10.1117/1.JRS.11.032406.
Abstract: Measurements of diurnal changes in ocean color in turbid coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico were characterized using above water spectral radiometry from a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (aerosol robotic network-WaveCIS CSI-06) site that can provide 8 to 10 observations per day. Satellite capability to detect diurnal changes in ocean color was characterized using hourly overlapping afternoon orbits of the visual infrared imaging radiometer suite (VIIRS) Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership ocean color sensor and validated with in situ observations. The monthly cycle of diurnal changes was investigated for different water masses using VIIRS overlaps. Results showed the capability of satellite observations to monitor hourly color changes in coastal regions that can be impacted by vertical movement of optical layers, in response to tides, resuspension, and river plume dispersion. The spatial variability of VIIRS diurnal changes showed the occurrence and displacement of phytoplankton blooming and decaying processes. The diurnal change in ocean color was above 20%, which represents a 30% change in chlorophyll-a. Seasonal changes in diurnal ocean color for different water masses suggest differences in summer and winter responses to surface processes. The diurnal changes observed using satellite ocean color can be used to define the following: surface processes associated with biological activity, vertical changes in optical depth, and advection of water masses. Continue reading —>
December 20, 2016
Tzeng, M. W., Dzwonkowski, B., & Park, K. (2016). Data processing for a small-scale long-term coastal ocean observing system near Mobile Bay, Alabama. Earth and Space Science, 3(12), 510–522.
Abstract: The oceanographic community routinely collects time series data of hydrography, water current velocity, and other basic physical, chemical, and biological properties of the marine environment. Such data are essential for establishing baseline characteristics of marine and estuarine ecosystems. However, the task of taking the raw data files as downloaded from a variety of instruments from multiple manufacturers, and converting them into file formats that can be used to address specific research questions, can be highly complex and time consuming. To illustrate some of these complexities, we have thoroughly documented the data processing steps for a small coastal ocean observing system near Mobile Bay, Alabama, that has been in operation since 2004. Our goals were to produce documentation and data provenance in sufficient detail for full science reproducibility of all studies that use data from this system, provide a template for other ocean observation operations, and highlight a need for better recognition of the significant amount of time and expertise often required to do both the data processing and the documentation for long-term observational systems. Continue reading —>
May 17, 2016
Arnone, R., R. Vandermeulen, P. Donaghay, H. Yang. (2016). Surface Biomass Flux across the Coastal Mississippi Shelf , SPIE Security and Defense: Proc. SPIE 9827, Ocean Sensing and Monitoring VIII, 98270Z (May 17, 2016).
Abstract: The exchange of water masses across the Mississippi shelf was used to determine the chlorophyll flux for an eight month period in 2013 through the major Mississippi River discharge period in Spring and Fall. Circulation models (NCOM and HYCOM) and SNPP satellite chlorophyll products were used to monitor the changes in the shelf transport and surface biological impact. The physical and biological response of cross shelf exchange was observed in rapidly changing dynamic movements of river plumes across the shelf as identified by the models and satellite products. Six sections on the shelf identified exchange corridors of transport and biomass chlorophyll flux of surface waters between the coast and offshore waters. During the eight month period, the nearshore waters show high carbon chlorophyll flux, averaging -60 x103 kg chl extending to offshore waters. However, at the outer shelf break, a significant carbon flux was observed moving shoreward onto the shelf from offshore waters, averaging +100 x103 kg chl, which is attributed to the dynamic Mississippi River plume. Results indicate a significant amount of offshore surface waters containing biological carbon can exchange across the shelf, clearly demonstrated through the combination of biological satellite products and physical models. Continue reading —>
April 13, 2016
Lockridge, G., Dzwonkowski, B., Nelson, R., & Powers, S. (2016). Development of a Low-Cost Arduino-Based Sonde for Coastal Applications. Sensors, 16(4), 528.
Abstract: This project addresses the need for an expansion in the monitoring of marine environments by providing a detailed description of a low cost, robust, user friendly sonde, built on Arduino Mega 2560 (Mega) and Arduino Uno (Uno) platforms. The sonde can be made without specialized tools or training and can be easily modified to meet individual application requirements. The platform allows for internal logging of multiple parameters of which conductivity, temperature, and GPS position are demonstrated. Two design configurations for different coastal hydrographic applications are highlighted to show the robust and versatile nature of this sensor platform. The initial sonde design was intended for use on a Lagrangian style surface drifter that recorded measurements of temperature; salinity; and position for a deployment duration of less than 24 h. Functional testing of the sensor consisted of a 55 h comparison with a regularly maintained water quality sensor (i.e., YSI 6600 sonde) in Mobile Bay, AL. The temperature and salinity data were highly correlated and had acceptable RMS errors of 0.154 °C and 1.35 psu for the environmental conditions. A second application using the sonde platform was designed for longer duration (~3–4 weeks); subsurface (1.5–4.0 m depths) deployment, moored to permanent structures. Design alterations reflected an emphasis on minimizing power consumption, which included the elimination of the GPS capabilities, increased battery capacity, and power-saving software modifications. The sonde designs presented serve as templates that will expand the hydrographic measurement capabilities of ocean scientists, students, and teachers. Continue reading —>
October 30, 2015
Zaron, E. D., Fitzpatrick, P. J., Cross, S. L., Harding, J. M., Bub, F. L., Wiggert, J. D., et al. (2015). Initial evaluations of a Gulf of Mexico/Caribbean ocean forecast system in the context of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Frontiers of Earth Science, 9, 1–32.
Abstract: In response to the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill event in 2010, the Naval Oceanographic Office deployed a nowcast-forecast system covering the Gulf of Mexico and adjacent Caribbean Sea that was designated Americas Seas, or AMSEAS, which is documented in this manuscript. The DwH disaster provided a challenge to the application of available ocean-forecast capabilities, and also generated a historically large observational dataset. AMSEAS was evaluated by four complementary efforts, each with somewhat different aims and approaches: a university research consortium within an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) testbed; a petroleum industry consortium, the Gulf of Mexico 3-D Operational Ocean Forecast System Pilot Prediction Project (GOMEX-PPP); a British Petroleum (BP) funded project at the Northern Gulf Institute in response to the oil spill; and the Navy itself. Validation metrics are presented in these different projects for water temperature and salinity profiles, sea surface wind, sea surface temperature, sea surface height, and volume transport, for different forecast time scales. The validation found certain geographic and time biases/errors, and small but systematic improvements relative to earlier regional and global modeling efforts. On the basis of these positive AMSEAS validation studies, an oil spill transport simulation was conducted using archived AMSEAS nowcasts to examine transport into the estuaries east of the Mississippi River. This effort captured the influences of Hurricane Alex and a non-tropical cyclone off the Louisiana coast, both of which pushed oil into the western Mississippi Sound, illustrating the importance of the atmospheric influence on oil spills such as DwH. Continue reading —>
September 12, 2015
Dzwonkowski, B., Park, K., & Collini, R. (2015). The coupled estuarine-shelf response of a river-dominated system during the transition from low to high discharge. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 120(9), 6145–6163.
Abstract: Opportunistic observations captured the coupled estuarine-shelf interactions as the Alabama coastal region transitioned from a period of low to flood river discharge conditions. The period of focus was 18 February to 10 April 2011 during which time a combination of in situ (water level, salinity and velocity) and remote sensing (ocean color) data provided information on the estuarine and shelf environment prior to, during, and post a major river discharge event that captured a relatively rare spatially synoptic view of the structural evolution of a discharge plume in response to changing forcing conditions. The discharge event generated major changes in the hydrographic conditions and forcing responses within the estuary and on the shelf. The resulting surface advected plume was observed for approximately two weeks, during which time the observed differences in shelf circulation were directly linked to the discharge plume and a plume bulge with anticyclonic circulation was identified at times throughout the event. The plume was exposed to a range of wind conditions which modulated the surface structure: downwelling winds elongated the plume structure and upwelling winds reversed and widened the plume. The influence of wind forcing, even during very low wind (<3.75 m s−1) and large outflow (∼7000 m3 s−1) conditions, was apparent, as a result of the shallow and wide characteristics of the plume. Anticyclonic bulge regions have only been identified in a few systems and the occurrence of this feature on the Alabama shelf has significant implications on transport and fate of river discharge in this region. Continue reading—>
August 24, 2015
Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Jubilee 2015 Report
A Gulf of Mexico event to coordinate glider and other ocean observing activities
The AUV Jubilee was an inaugural event to coordinate glider and other in situ ocean data operations in the Gulf of Mexico for the month of July 2015. Our primary goal was to establish an open dialogue and collaboration with scientists across the Gulf, in order to acquire simultaneous ocean observations and leverage off of fellow participants to create a multifaceted and integrated data set. The AUV Jubilee was led by the University of Southern Mississippi’s Ocean Weather Laboratory (http://www.usm.edu/marine/research-owx), which hosted a series of webinars to display real-time satellite ocean color and several ocean circulation models (HYCOM/NCOM), as well as maps of product uncertainty to allow the participating scientists to adaptively sample features of interest (e.g., eddies, river filaments, fronts, etc.). This data fusion tool enabled the display of up-to-date locations of various glider and ship/aerial operations while they were deployed, and facilitated near real-time data exchanges in order to further assist in decision-making for adaptive sampling of ocean features. In addition to real-time operations, all participants were encouraged to submit data to the National Glider Data Assembly Center (NGDAC), so that the data could be available for assimilation into operational physical circulation models. The list of glider participants is shown below in Table 1. The scope of the AUV Jubilee also included an educational outreach component, in which a competitively selected group of highly qualified teachers were brought in for an intensive one week program that included curriculum development, hands on oceanographic experience, and participation in real-time glider operations.
Read the rest of the report here: AUV_Jubilee_2015
Associations between lobster phyllosoma and gelatinous zooplankton in relation to oceanographic properties in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Fisheries Oceanography. Adam T. Greer, Christian Briseño-Avena, Alison L. Deary, Robert K. Cowen, Frank J. Hernandez, William M. Graham.
Ecology and behaviour of a holoplanktonic scyphomedusa and its interactions with larval fishes described with in situ imaging in the northern Gulf of Mexico. ICES Journal of Marine Science. Adam T. Greer, Luciano M. Chiaverano, Jessica Y. Luo, Robert K. Cowen, William M. Graham
Examination of the Real-Time Mesoscale Analysis in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Coastal Research. Patrick J. Fitzpatrick and Y. Lau
Inflow of shelf waters into the Mississippi Sound and Mobile Bay estuaries in October 2015. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing. Kemal Cambazoglu, et al.
Taxon-specific distribution and abundance of gelatinous zooplankton in relation to physical properties of the water column in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Luciano Chiaverano, Adam Greer, Christian Briseno-Avena, Robert Cowen, Frank Hernandez, Monty Graham
Cross-Shelf Exchange and Transport in Northern Gulf of Mexico studied with Navy Coastal Ocean Model, NCOM. Kemal Cambazoglu, et al.
Observations of internal waves in the coastal waters of Alabama, Northern Gulf of Mexico. Brian Dzwonkowski, Steve Dykstra
The functioning of coastal-river dominated ecosystems and implications for oil extraction: from observations to mechanisms and models. Adam T. Greer, A. M. Shiller, J. D. Wiggert, E. E. Hofmann, S. J. Warner, S. M. Parra, C. Pan, D. Joung, S. Dykstra, J. W. Krause, B. Dzwonkowski, I. M. Soto, C. Briseño-Avena, A. L. Deary, A. D. Boyette, M. Kemal Cambazoglu, J. A. Kastler, L. Hode, U. Nwankwo, L. M. Chiaverano, S. J. O’Brien, P. J. Fitzpatrick, Y. Lau, M. S. Dinniman, K. M. Martin, A. K. Mojzis, S. D. Howden, J. N. Moum, F. J. Hernandez, I. Church, T. N. Miles, J. W. Book, A. D. Weidemann, S. Sponaugle, R. A. Arnone, R. K. Cowen, G. A. Jacobs, W. M. Graham
Combining multibeam acoustics and in situ imaging to resolve patch structure of shrimp aggregations and gelatinous zooplankton in relation to hypoxia. Adam T. Greer, Ian Church, Luciano M. Chiaverano, Christian Briseño-Avena, Robert K. Cowen, William M. Graham
Acoustic detection of complex zooplankton diel vertical migration behaviors on the northeast Gulf of Mexico shelf. Sabrina Parra, et al.
Circulation and Turbulence in River Dominated Inner Shelf. Sabrina Parra, et al.
Observed cross-shelf transport and flow structure to the east of the Mississippi River Birdfoot Delta. Sabrina Parra, et al.
Bio-optical Water Mass Classification of the Mississippi Bight Region: Coupling High Resolution Satellite Data, Circulation Models and In-situ Optics. Inia M. Soto, Robert Arnone, Alan Weidemann, Mustafa Kemal Cambazoglu, Stephan Howden, Adam Boyette, DongJoo Joung
Advection of Karenia brevis blooms from the Florida Panhandle towards the Mississippi Bight and Sound. Inia M. Soto, M.K. Cambazoglu, A.D. Boyette, K. Broussard, D. Sheehan, A.M. Shiller, B. Dzwonkowski, S. Howden, L. Hode, G. A. Jacobs, P. Fitzpatrick, R. A. Arnone, P. Mickle
The impact of river plumes, shelf currents and variable winds on cross-isopycnal transport in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Sally J. Warner, James N. Moum